Pei Luo , Konstantinos Athanasiou, Liwei Zhang, Zhen Hang Jiang , Yunsi Fei , A. Adam Ding, Thomas Wahl
November 2017
Abstract:
Side-channel attack utilizes side-channel leakages to extract the secret in crypto systems. Various countermeasures for different algorithms and platforms have been proposed to protect crypto systems against such attacks. Manual countermeasure design requires deep understanding of the target algorithm and implementation, and oftentimes is platform-specific and error-prone. In this paper, we propose the construction of Threshold Implementation (TI), a provably secure countermeasure against power attacks, as an automated compiler pass in the open LLVM (Low Level Virtual Machine) framework. Attack results show that the automatically generated TI designs are secure against power attacks. As our proposed scheme implements the countermeasure at the intermediate representation (IR) level, our method can be applied to any cipher software in any programming language, and the generated implementations can be ported to different platforms and architectures.
Pei Luo, Yunsi Fei, Liwei Zhang, A. Adam Ding
August 2017
Journal of Hardware and Systems Security, Springer
Abstract:
Keccak-based algorithms such as Secure Hash Algorithm-3 (SHA-3) will be widely used in crypto systems, and evaluating their security against different kinds of attacks is vitally important. This paper presents an efficient differential fault analysis (DFA) method on all four modes of SHA-3 to recover an entire internal state, which leads to message recovery in the regular hashing mode and key retrieval in the message authentication code (MAC) mode. We adopt relaxed fault models in this paper, assuming the attacker can inject random single-byte faults into the penultimate round input of SHA-3. We also propose algorithms to find the lower bound on the number of fault injections needed to recover an entire internal state for the proposed attacks. Results show that on average the attacker needs about 120 random faults to recover an internal state, while he needs 17 faults at best if he has control of the faults injected. The proposed attack method is further extended for systems with input messages longer than the bitrate.
Chao Luo, Yunsi Fei, A. Adam Ding
April 2017
Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), 2017
Abstract:
XTS-AES is an advanced mode of AES for data protection of sector-based devices. Compared to other AES modes, it features two secret keys instead of one, and an additional tweak for each data block. These characteristics make the mode not only resistant against cryptoanalysis attacks, but also more challenging for side-channel attack. In this paper, we propose two attack methods on XTS-AES overcoming these challenges. In the first attack, we analyze side-channel leakage of the particular modular multiplication in XTS-AES mode. In the second one, we utilize the relationship between two consecutive block tweaks and propose a method to work around the masking of ciphertext by the tweak. These attacks are verified on an FPGA implementation of XTS-AES. The results show that XTS-AES is susceptible to side-channel power analysis attacks, and therefore dedicated protections are required for security of XTS-AES in storage devices.
Pei Luo, Konstantinos Athanasiou, Yunsi Fei, Thomas Wahl
April 2017
Design, Automation and Test in Europe (DATE), 2017
Abstract:
This paper presents an efficient algebraic fault analysis on all four modes of SHA-3 under relaxed fault models. This is the first work to apply algebraic techniques on fault analysis of SHA-3. Results show that algebraic fault analysis on SHA-3 is very efficient and effective due to the clear algebraic properties of Keccak operations. Comparing with previous work on differential fault analysis of SHA-3, algebraic fault analysis can identify the injected faults with much higher rates, and recover an entire internal state of the penultimate round with much fewer fault injections.